Protozoa - Ciliophora - Hypotrichida

Morphology and Divisional Morphogenesis (Binary Fission, Ontogenesis, Stomatogenesis) of the Hypotrichida

Eschaneustyla brachytona Stokes, 1886 (Morphology, Divisional Morphogenesis and Reorganization in Eigner, P. 1994). Hypotrichida have a prominent adoral zone of membranelles, cirri on ventral and cilia on dorsal side

The Hypotrichida are considered the highest evolved single-celled organisms and their morphogenetic data is used for reconstructing phylogeny and evolution and for establishing a natural system. The cells are stained during morphogenesis for analyzing the ontogenetic processes. These processes reveal that seemingly homologous interphase cortical patterns are generated in fact by non-homologous morphogenetic processes. Therefore, these cortical patterns belong to different phylogenetic lineages despite their uniform interphase morphology.

"Tracing out the dynamics of the pattern during ontogeny can provide data potentially of great significance in determination of the organism's phylogenetic affinities" (John O. Corliss, 1968. Trans. Am. microsc. Soc., 87:1-20).


To see a Full Text Article (1991--2001) choose the year below then click this line

Eigner, P. 2001. Divisional morphogenesis in Uroleptus caudatus (Stokes, 1886), and the relationship between the Urostylidae and the Parakahliellidae, Oxytrichidae, and Orthoamphisiellidae on the basis of morphogenetic processes (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 48:70--79.

Eigner, P. 1999. Comparison of divisional morphogenesis in four morphologically different clones of the genus Gonostomum and update of the natural hypotrich system (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Europ. J. Protistol., 35:34--48.

Eigner, P. 1997. Evolution of morphogenetic processes in the Orthoamphisiellidae N. Fam., Oxytrichidae, and Parakahliellidae N. Fam., and their depiction using a computer method (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). J. Euk. Microbiol., 44:553--573.

Eigner, P. 1995. Divisional morphogenesis in Deviata abbrevescens nov. gen., nov. spec., Neogeneia hortualis nov. gen., nov. spec., and Kahliella simplex (Horváth) Corliss and redefinition of the Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Europ. J. Protistol., 31:341--366.

Eigner, P. 1994. Divisional morphogenesis and reorganization in Eschaneustyla brachytona Stokes, 1886 and revision of the Bakuellinae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Europ. J. Protistol., 30:462--475.

Eigner, P. & Foissner, W. 1994. Divisional morphogenesis in Amphisiellides illuvialis n. sp., Paramphisiella caudata (Hemberger) and Hemiamphisiella terricola Foissner, and redefinition of the Amphisiellidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). J. Euk. Microbiol., 41:243--261.

Eigner, P. & Foissner, W. 1993. Divisional morphogenesis in Orthoamphisiella stramenticola Eigner & Foissner, 1991 and O. grelli nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Arch. Protistenkd., 143:337--345.

Eigner, P. & Foissner, W. 1992. Divisional morphogenesis in Bakuella pampinaria nov. spec. and reevaluation of the classification of the urostylids (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Europ. J. Protistol., 28:460--470.

Eigner, P. & Foissner, W. 1991. Orthoamphisiella stramenticola nov. gen., nov. spec., a new hypotrichous ciliate (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida) occurring in walnut leaf litter. Acta Protozool., 30:129--133.


The Natural System of the Hypotrichida (Phylogenetic Tree)

Eigner, P. 2001. Key to the species of the Hypotrichida (Protozoa, Ciliophora) on CD

Book Review: Monograph of the Oxytrichidae

The Hypotrichida from STEIN (1859) (54 drawings: 1,5 MB)

The Hypotrichida from KAHL (1932) (320 drawings: 2,5 MB)

Literature: Divisional Morphogenesis of the Hypotrichida

The Ciliate Diversity Chart



Holosticha flavorubra var. rubra and H. flavorubra var. flava from ENTZ (1884)